Number Systems used in Ancient India

India’s contribution to the field of mathematics started before 1200 BC as recorded and it still prevails in the current century. As per the documented texts and archeological evidences available in hand, we have come up with a definite period to say that the contribution started around 1200 BC. But the fact is that there have been application of mathematical concepts and knowledge on mathematics seen even in Vedas. Rigveda being one of the oldest books in the world has various places or verses where application of concepts from mathematics can be seen. Though we will not be able to see detailed explanation about any of the concepts, we will be able to see verses describing about the calculations and concepts used. Some of the great scholars who came after 1200 BC have made enormous contributions to the field of mathematics. This article will describe about the number systems used in Ancient India.

We all know very well for the fact that modern discoveries and inventions have found out various methods to represent formulas and numbers. In ancient India, everything was represented only in the form of verses in Sanskrit and other regional languages. In order to represent numbers and formulas in the form of verses, a high level of perfection was required. There were three main number systems used in Ancient India to represent numbers in the verses. There are also references about other number systems but more details are not available about them. The meter in the verses were also followed strictly to maintain perfection in what they were trying to convey. Representing all the numbers in the form of verses was challenging. That is the reason why they had to strictly follow a number system to represent formulas and numbers. With the help of these number systems the ancient scholars have represented all the types of mathematics which include formulas, numbers, algebra etc., in the form of verses easily. There were three major types of number system with Aksharapalli contributing to total of 4 number systems used by Ancient Mathematicians namely:

  • Aryabhateeya number system
  • Bootha Sankya system
  • Katapayadi number system
  • Aksharapalli

In ancient India, the scientists, astronomers and mathematicians had to deal with huge numbers for their calculation. That is the reason why they had to invent these number systems making the calculation easier. Apart from the application of these number systems in representing formulas and calculations, these number systems were extensively used by the ancient astronomers and even poets as an encryption tool to silently represent a number or code. One best example is a verse that praises Lord Krishna but if Katapayadi numbers are substituted, the verse provides decimal value of pi. Scholars from ancient India have taken these number systems as a freedom to represent numbers in different ways along with verses that actually provides a different straight meaning.

Aryabhateeya number system

Aryabhata’s contribution to the field of mathematics is really commendable. He has shared his views with detailed explanation on some of the advanced concepts in mathematics and the field of astronomy. Aryabhata has used his own unique number system to represent his mathematical and astronomical calculations in the form of verses. It will take less than half hour for to learn Aryabhateeya number system for someone who know Sanskrit alphabets. Aryabhata has detailed about this number system clearly in the second stanza in his book Aryabhatiya.

Bootha Sankya system

Bootha sankya system was one of the interesting methods for representing numbers used by ancient mathematicians. The word Bootha Sankya can be split into Bootha + Sankya where the numbers were represented with the help of some elements. In other words it can be said that some elements of nature can were used to represent a set of numbers. Some of the examples for Bootha Sankya number system are

Eyes – 2
Veda – 4
Chandra – 1
Prithvi – 1
Bootha – 5

So in the above examples, if we take eyes, every human has two eyes. If we take the word veda, there are totally 4 vedas namely Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharvana. If we take Chandra, there is only one moon for the world. If we take Prithvi, there is only one earth. If we take Bootha, there are 5 boothas namely air, water, land, space and fire. The list goes on. The representation doesn’t end with just one word. Any synonyms for the above words will also be used to represent the same number as Sanskrit is very rich in synonyms. In some of the verses the combination of such words may not make any sense as a sentence but when it is substituted with the actual numbers it will give wonderful values.

Katapayadi Number system

Katapayadi number system is another technique of using alphabets as numbers. From the history we can see that Katapayadi Sankhya was extensively used by the astronomers and mathematicians in ancient India. Though it is not still clear about the origin of Katapayadi number system, we can see that it is extensively employed in the schools of Kerala. Compared to Aryabhateeya number system, there are lots of advantages available in using Katapayadi number system wherein by combining vowels and consonants we will be able to create meaningful words and sentences with which a different meaning can also be used for representation. It is believed that Katapayadi number system was used extensively in ancient India for encryption purpose. For some of the normal verses if we substitute Katapayadi numbers, we will be able to get a number that might even provide more details about the period of the work.

Aksharapalli

This is another form of letter based number system used in ancient India. This system can be found in the manuscripts from 6th century AD. It is believed that this system was used extensively to save space when representing something in the form of manuscripts. Such manuscripts were mostly found in Nepal and Kerala region of India. It is also believed that the system might have evolved from the period of usage of Brahmi numeral system.

Difference between Desire and Greed

In big royal houses, there will be dogs. The owner treats the dog like their own son or daughter. This story is about one such dog. In these big houses, the gate will have a small opening through which the dog will look outside and communicate with other dogs and people outside. There was a street dog roaming. The Royal dog started to have a conversation with the street dog.

Street dog: Why are you staying in this house? Being in street i have lots of benefits. I get different varieties of food everyday. I can travel to many places, I can see lots of people. I’m having more fun than me. Why don’t you come with me? We will have fun together.

Royal dog: Thanks for the offer bro. I would have joined you but there is a story from my side. I will tell you if you are ready to listen. In this house the owner is having a daughter. They are looking for groom for this daughter. Some astrologer told that in her horoscope Raaghu is in 8th house so the marriage will be postponed. Daughter told, “in 8th house there is no Raaghu and all there is only Raghu and I would like to marry him.”

The street dog interrupted and asked “why are you telling me these unwanted stories. I have 1000 other works to do”.

Royal dog: Hey wait the story is almost in the end stage. The father got angry and said “I will marry you even to this dog but not to Raghu”. Bro and the girl will be good looking so I’m waiting.

Moral: The daughter wanted to marry Raghu. That is Desire. Dog wanted to marry the daughter. That is Greed.

Law of Gravity discovered by Bhaskaracharya II

World is not fully aware about the potential of India. Most of the discoveries made by Indian scholars are still unknown to the world. India has contributed a lot towards the field of Astronomy, Mathematics, Astrology, Weather forecast, Physics, Chemistry, Alchemy etc. Many inventions and discoveries were made in ancient India but the great minds of India was not given the credit. One such example is the Law of Gravity. When we talk about Gravitation and law of gravity, we will immediately get only Sir Isaac Newton and the apple that fell on his head. Newton’s contribution to Gravity and other discoveries are still great because he has given a detailed explanation on these concepts and that is used extensively in various field in our modern world. But Newton was not the first person to discover Gravity. The actual credit for the discovery of Law of Gravity should be given to Bhaskaracharya II. In his book Sidhanta Shiromani, Bhaskaracharya has explained clearly about Gravity. The gravitational force is also called as gurutvakarshan shakti by Bhaskaracharya.

मध्ये समन्तादण्डस्य भूगोलो व्योम्नि तिष्ठति ।
बिभ्राणः परमां शक्तिं ब्रह्मणो धारणात्मिकाम् ॥ — (सुर्य सिध्दान्त​: भुगोलाध्याय – ३२)

madhye samantandasya bhugolo vyomni tisthati
bibhranah paramam saktim brahmano dharanatmikam
[Surya Sidhantha, Bhulogaadhayaya, 32nd Shloka]

In the above verses written by Aryabhata in his book Surya Sidhantha, he gives a clue about the force that holds the earth in the space. Bhaskaracharya, in his commentary to the book Surya Sidhantha, he explains about how gravitation works, in detail. The below verses are from the book Sidhantha Sironmani, a commentary to Surya Sidhantha. Bhaskaracharya wrote this book at the age of 36 in the year 1150 AD.

आकृष्टिशक्तिश्च महि तय यत्।
खष्ठं गुरु स्वभिमुखं स्वशक्त्या ॥
आकृष्यते तत्पततीव भाति।
समेसमन्तात् क्व पतत्वियं खे ॥ — (सिद्धान्त शिरोमणि गोलाध्याय-भुवनकोष-६)

akrishti sakthishcha mahi taya yat
kashtam guru svabhimukham svasaktya
akrishyathe tatpatativa bhati
same samantaat kva patatviyam khe
[Sidhanta Shiromani, Golodhyaaya-Bhuvanakosa, 6th Shloka]

After Bhaskaracharya II, there are also other scholars who have described about Gravity in their works. Newton’s contribution to concepts related to Gravitation is still amazing as he has given lots of additional information regarding this topic. There are also descriptions available about the availability of this gravitational force in scriptures that belong to 6000 BC. Descriptions are available on Prashnopanishad about Gravitational pull. The literary work Prashnopanishad belongs to 6000 BC. There are many commentaries available for Prashnopanishad in which the scholars have also explained the context clearly. The book describes about the force that pulls objects towards the earth and the force that keep us grounded to the earth. Without this force we will end up floating.

References:

Indians knew gravity laws 500 years before Newton

Jalaukavacharanam – A keyhole surgery technique or leech therapy in Ayurveda

Jalaukam is known as Leech in Sanskrit and the therapy made with the help of leech is called as Jalaukavacharanam. In modern terminology, Jalaukavacharanam is also considered to be one type of Keyhole surgery. In 13th chapter of Suthrasthana in the book Sushrutha Samhita, Sushrutha describes about leeches. He mentions that there are two types of leeches available and they are poisonous and non-poisonous. In each classification there are totally 6 distinct types available. Jalaukavacharanam is a therapy that involves non-poisonous leeches. In Ayurveda, only the non poisonous variety leeches are used for therapeutic purposes. They are being used for several centuries and have provides very good results. Based on the information written by Sushrutha in Sushrutha Samhita, there are many research works going on to understand the other significance of this leech therapy. Even today this therapy is being used by various Aurvedic physicians to solve problems related to bad tissues, blood and skin. In other words we can also say that this keyhole surgery has been described in Sushrutha Samhita as Jalaukavacharanam.

Symbol of Surgery in the hand of Lord Dhanvantari

Leech or Jalaukam is considered to be an important organism for treatment in Ayurveda. They are very helpful in treating various problems related to skin and blood. Especially the problems that arises after transplantation of an organ or re-fixing a broken limb are addressed with the help of Jalaukavacharanam. Lord Dhanvantari is considered to be the God for Ayurveda and the first surgeon in Ayurveda. This Jalaukam or leech stays in the hand of Lord Dhanvantari as a symbol of surgery. All the Ayurveda lovers and practitioners worship Lord Dhanvantari with the below shloka.

” शंखंचक्रंजलौकांदधतममृतघटंचारुदोर्भिश्चतुर्भिः।
सूक्ष्मस्वच्छातिह्र्द्यांशुकपरिविलसन मौलिमम्भोजनेत्रम॥
कालाम्भोदोज्वलांगंकटितटविलसच्चारूपीताम्बराढयं।
वन्दे धन्वन्तरिं तं निखिल गदवन प्रौढदावाग्निलीलम॥ ”

Meaning of this shloka

“One who bears in his attractive four hands- conch, circular weapon,
a set of leeches and a pot with ambrosia,
whose fine, shining and pure upper garment
makes him appear especially wonderful,
whose eyes are like lotus flower,
whose bright bodily luster is of the colour of a fresh rain cloud,
whose beautiful waist is adored by a magnificent yellow dress
and who burns away all diseases…
just like a forest fire,
to such Lord Dhanvantari,
I bow respectfully”

In the above shloka it is described that Lord Dhanvantari holds a set of leeches in his hand as a symbol for surgery.

Practice of Jalaukavacharanam or leech therapy

In Jalaukavacharanam, leeches are used to treat problems in the skin. Some varieties of leeches are capable of removing unwanted or bad blood from the affected region. The Ayurvedic physician first examines the depth of the infection or the disease in the person. Based on the investigation, treatment is provided or Jalaukavacharanam is suggested by the physician. There are few types of leeches available that are suitable for Jalaukavacharanam. These leeches are mostly available in Palakad in Kerala region of southern India. They are bred in big containers for this purpose and exported to various part of India and even outside India for this treatment.

Proper diet is very important to get a good result from Jalaukavacharanam. Usually in the modern world there are various distractions available for the human body to stay away from proper dieting. Some of the modern diet can even increase toxins in the body. Usually an Ayurvedic physician will provide dieting steps clean the body from toxins first before going for Jalaukavacharanam. If there are toxins in the body the leech therapy may not provide desired positive results. It is an important aspect in leech therapy.

The significance of Jalaukavacharanam or leech therapy come into place when people have problems related to skin or after transplantation or reattaching limbs. It can also be helpful for people who have complications in pure blood supply through the tissues after operations. It is also believed that the treatment is significant in removing cancerous tissues and regulate the blood flow.

Role played by leech in Jalaukavacharanam or leech therapy

In leech therapy or Jalaukavacharanam, a group of leeches are introduced to the affected region by the Ayurvedic physician. It is important that the patient should first be mentally prepared to accept the treatment. From the looks of it, it might be disgusting but the leeches are harmless. When they are introduced to the affected region, they suck impure blood and help in fast healing of the affected region. When leech suck blood from the affected region, there will not be any pain experienced by the patient. A natural anesthesia is available in the mouth of the leech and they are capable of sucking only the impure blood. Even the modern researchers have found that when leech sucks the blood, they inject some chemicals to the body along with their saliva that has healing properties. Further studies are being carried out to understand the full potential of these chemicals secreted by the leech.

Some people might find it scary but it is one of the successful treatment compared to that of key hole surgery in modern world. In this therapy a bunch of leeches are introduced to the affected region and let to suck the impure blood without any pain for the patient. The leeches that are used for these therapies are then removed from the affected region and the blood will be removed from their body. If they are used once, they will be stored in a container and will not be used again for the next 6 months. After 6 months they will again be used for further treatments. These special varieties of leeches are studied in detail to understand more about their significance. ‘Haementeria’ is one such giant leech that helps in preventing growth of tumor cells in the lungs. They are also capable of preventing cancer cells from grouping together. It is quite interesting to see such organisms created by the nature to treat problems in humans naturally.

Keyhole surgery and Jalaukavacharanam

In ancient India, Jalaukavacharanam was considered to be one of the advanced technique used to treat a person with complex diseases. In the modern world, we have a concept of keyhole surgery where a 5 to 10mm insertion is made in the skin and the affected region is operated through this keyhole. Various problems related to infections and organ problems are addressed with the help of keyhole surgery. Compared to the surgery where nearly 10 cm cutting will be made to operate the affected region, keyhole surgery was considered to be a major break through. For a modern researcher these information from Ayurvedic scriptures can be very helpful in extending the treatment methods for various health disorders. Researches who are interested in keyhole surgery are doing a deep analysis both theoretically as well as practically on Jalaukavacharanam or leech therapy.

References:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3331424/

Some people who underwent Jalaukavacharanam are Padma Subrahmanyam, Dr. K. Viswanatha Sharma and Advocate Sampath Kumar, Chromepet. They have shared their personal experiences in various public speeches. Padma Subrahmanyam was able to continue her dance after undergoing this surgery.

Gangaikonda Cholapuram Brahadhishwarar Temple Ashtabandhana Maha Kumbabhishegam Invitation

Brihadishwarar temple Maha Kumbabhishegam is going to happen on 02-02-2017 Thursday. The invitation for this event is available below. You can also send your contributions for the Kumbabhishegam in the form of materials or money. The Kumbabhishega Pathrika is available below. This year Kumbahishegam is happening after 85 years with the support of the people in and around the temple.

Request everyone to participate in this and get the blessings of the Lord.

  

For all the Maha Periyava followers this is a very big oportunity to attend this great event in their life time. 32 years back Annabhishegam was started by Kanchi Maha Periyava in Gangai Konda Cholapuram with the presence of many commitee members and mettur Rajagopal swamigal. Annabhishegam commetee is blessed to undertake the organizing part of Maha Kumbabhishegam of Gangai Konda Cholapuram Brahadishwarar temple. Every year Annabhishegam will be performed during the Poornima day of Aypasi Month. During this event 100 bags of rice will be offered as abhishegam to Brihadishwar and after the alankaaram and deeparaadhanai, the rice will be given to the public as Prasadham.

Composition of Earth as described by Aryabhata I

Many geologists have conducted various studies to understand about the composition of Earth. According to modern science on a high level it is determined that earth is composed of Soil, Water, Air, Fire and Ether. It is quite remarkable to see Aryabhata mentioning about the composition of earth in his book Aryabhatiya. In his book Aryabhata I not only talks about the composition of Earth but also about the Shape of Earth. Aryabhatiya can be considered to be one of the best works made in India in the field of astronomy and mathematics. There are various concepts in the book still unexplored by the modern science.

वृत्तभपञ्जरमध्ये कक्षापरिवेष्टित: खमध्यगत:।
मृज्जलशिखिवायुमयो भूगोलः सर्वतो वृत्तः॥ (Chapter 4, Vere 6)

The globe of the Earth stands (support less) in space at the centre of the circular frame of the asterisms (i.e., at the centre of the Bhagola) surrounded by the orbits (of the planets); it is made up of water, earth, fire and air and is spherical (circular on all sides).

In the above verse Aryabhata mentions that Earth is made up of water, soil, fire and air. It is quite interesting to see that he has determined this in 499 CE. Other astronomers however believe that earth is made up of 5 elements which includes ether along with the ones mentioned above. We don’t know why Aryabhata did not mention about ether when he speaks about the composition of Earth. Apart from this he has also provided other significant information about Earth. His poetic way of expression is also notable. He compares Earth with that of Kadhamba flower in the below verse.

यद्वत् कदम्बपुश्पष्पग्रन्थिः प्रचितः समन्ततः कुसुमैः।
तद्वद्धि सर्वसत्त्वैर्जलजैः स्थलजैश्च भूगोलः॥ (Chapter 4, Verse 7)

Just as the bulb of a Kadamba flower is covered all around by blossoms, just so is the globe of the Earth surrounded by all creatures, terrestrial as well as aquatic.

When he says about the bulb of Kadhamba flower in his verses, we can also conclude that Aryabhata was sure about the Spherical shape of earth. Aryabhata also casually mentions about the different types of species that are present in earth and how earth is surrounded by them.

Apart from Aryabhatiya, there are several other Tamil scriptures that describes the composition of earth to be made of Pancha Bootham. These Pancha Bootham is classifed as earth, water, fire, air and space. Even the human body is made up of these 5 elements. In Ayurveda it is described that a person is exposed to diseases only when there is an imbalance in Air energy, Fire energy and Water energy in the body. Tamil saint Thiruvalluvar has also mentioned about this in his Thirukkural.

மிகினும் குறையினும் நோய்செய்யும் நூலோர்
வளிமுதலா எண்ணிய மூன்று. – (Thirukkural 941)

Miginum Kurayinum Noiseiyyum Noolor
Malimudhalaa Enniya Moondru.

Scholars consider three elements air energy, fire energy and water energy that can create disease in a person if any of its level is high or low in the body. So there is no wonder that we had all the treasures of knowledge and wisdom in India.

Spherical Shape of Earth as described by Aryabhata I

India is well known for its knowledge and wisdom. There were many wonderful discoveries made by Indian astrologers and mathematicians. One such interesting discovery is the shape of Earth. It is believed that till 17th century there was no clear picture available about the shape of Earth. People and many scholars believed that the actual shape of earth was flat. There were many theories and controversies available all over the world about the shape of Earth. Another explanation or idea about the spherical shape of earth was given by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). His contribution to Mathematics, astronomy, physics etc., were amazing. Just before his death he gave lots of valuable information in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium that was considered to be a very big contribution for scientific revolution. Sir Isaac Newton gave a clear picture about the shape of earth to be spherical in in work called Principia. It was considered to be one of the important works of science. In 7th century Galileo Galilei’s contribution to mathematics and astronomy was also amazing. He devoted his life on various discoveries and inventions. He has also provided enough information about the spherical shape of Earth.

Before Copernicus, Galileo and Newton, an Indian astronomer named Aryabhata (476–550 CE) provided a detailed description about the shape of earth and other details about Earth. The book also described a lot of information about other aspects of astronomy and mathematics. In his book Aryabhatiya, there is a chapter by name Boogola, which means Spherical Earth. In that chapter he has described various information about the aspects of spherical Earth.

वृत्तभपञ्जरमध्ये कक्षापरिवेष्टित: खमध्यगत:।
मृज्जलशिखिवायुमयो भूगोलः सर्वतो वृत्तः॥ (Chapter 4, Verse 6)

The globe of the Earth stands (support less) in space at the centre of the circular frame of the asterisms (i.e., at the centre of the Bhagola) surrounded by the orbits (of the planets); it is made up of water, earth, fire and air and is spherical (circular on all sides).

From the above verse it is clear that earth was spherical in shape as the word भूगोलः literally means circular on all sides. Aryabhata named the chapter as Bhoogola and described lots of information about earth and its properties. The chapter describes about the composition, positioning, shape, and other aspects associated with astronomy of earth.

Other references to Spherical shape of Earth can be seen in Varaha Avatar. In Hindu scriptures there is a description that Lord Vishnu takes Varaha avatar which is a boar form and saves earth from drowning. Though the drowning part of earth is debatable, in all the places when Varaha Avatar is described, the shape of earth is also displayed as Spherical.

Aryabhata has not just given the shape and composition of Earth. But he has also described and explained the circumference of the spherical earth. Though some of the points mentioned in the book Aryabhateeya is not completely acceptable based on modern discoveries, it is not a book that should be completely ignored.

Positioning of Varma Points in the body

It is not very easy to completely understand about Varma Kalai. Every Varma Kalai practitioner should undergo perfect training to understand and use Varma Kalai in their day to day life. Understanding the positioning of Varma points is also a complicated process. We will not be able to understand it clearly without assistance from a perfect Guru. Gain theoretical knowledge and practicing Varma Kalai is like learning swimming through postal tuition. Scholars in ancient India lived with perfect discipline and practiced Thanuology with great dedication. Some of the great scholars of ancient India, like Sage Agasthya have provided lots of information about Varma Kalai and Varma points in the body.

Life of a person is positioned in various places in a human body. These points are otherwise called as Varma points. When these points are affected or damaged, there is a high possibility for a person to lose their life. Further in some cases it can create severe loss to the person by creating different types of diseases. In day to day life every human being is exposed to some kind of damage to some of these Varma points without their knowledge. Most of these damages are quite normal with no effect. But there are some cases where damage to these Varma points become a complex damage. These complex damages even becomes a challenge to the medical world. The Varma point damage is also dependent on the strength, age, capacity and endurance of the affected individual. Among the 72000 nerves that flow in the body, there are several thousands of it in which Varma points are present.

In human body the damages in Varma points in bone and bone associated regions becomes Padu Varmam. The damages that affect skin and muscles becomes Thattu Varmam and the damages to the Varma points associated with nerves in the body becomes Thodu varmam. Apart from the above mentioned key areas, there are also other Varmam in the interior of organs such as Heart, Kidney, Pancreas, Liver, Lungs etc. These Varmam can be specific to a particular organ or region or it can be generic causing health problems.

Hidden positioning of Varma points in Human body

There are many hidden regions in human body. It can also be said that there are quite a few places where even modern science is yet explore. Some of these hidden spots has many Varma points in it. The positioning of such Varma points based on different regions are listed below based on the information provided by Sage Agasthyar:

37 Varma Points in Head Region of the body

1

திலர்த வர்மம்

Thilartha Varmam

2

கண்ணாடி கால வர்மம்

Kannaadikaala Varmam

3

மூர்த்தி கால வர்மம்

Moorthikaala Varmam

4

அந்தம் வர்மம்

Andham Varmam

5

தும்மிக் கால வர்மம்

Thumbikkaala Varmam

6

பின் சுவாதி வர்மம்

Pinswaathi Varmam

7

கும்பிடு கால வர்மம்

Kumbidukaala Varmam

8

நட்சத்திர வர்மம்

Natchathirakaala Varmam

9

பால வர்மம்

Baala Varmam

10

மேல் கரடி வர்மம்

Melkaadi Varmam

11

முன் சுவாதி வர்மம்

Munswaathi Varmam

12

கெம வர்மம்

Kema Varmam

13

மந்திர கால வர்மம்

Mandhirakaala Varmam

14

பின் வட்டிக் கால வர்மம்

Pinvattikkaala Varmam

15

காம்பூதி கால வர்மம்

Kaamboodhikaala Varmam

16

உள்நாக்கு கால வர்மம்

Ulnaakkukkaala Varmam

17

ஓட்டு வர்மம்

Ottu Varmam

18

சென்னி வர்மம்

Senni Varmam

19

பொய்கைக் கால வர்மம்

Poigaikkaala Varmam

20

அலவாடி வர்மம்

Alavaadi Varmam

21

மூக்கடைக்கி கால வர்மம்

Mookkadaikki Kaalavarmam

22

கும்பேரிக் கால வர்மம்

Kumberikkaala Varmam

23

நாசிக் கால வர்மம்

Naasikkaala Varmam

24

வெட்டு வர்மம்

Vettu Varmam

25

அண்ணாங்கு கால வர்மம்

Annaangaala Varmam

26

உறக்க கால வர்மம்

Urakkakaala Varmam

27

கொக்கி வர்மம்

Kokki Varmam

28

சங்குதிரி கால வர்மம்

Sanguthirikaala Varmam

29

செவிக்குத்தி கால வர்மம்

Sevikutthikaala Varmam

30

கொம்பு வர்மம்

Kombu Varmam

31

சுமைக்கால வர்மம்

Sumaikkaala Varmam

32

தலைப்பாகை வர்மம்

Thalaippaagai Varmam

33

பூட்டெல்லு வர்மம்

Poottellu Varmam

34

மூர்த்தி அடக்க வர்மம்

Moorthiadakka Varmam

35

பிடரி கால வர்மம்

Pidarikaala Varmam

36

பொச்சை வர்மம்

Pochai Varmam

37

சரிதி வர்மம்

Saridhi Varmam

13 Varma Points in chest region of the body

1

தள்ளல் நடுக்குழி வர்மம்

Thallal Nadukuzhi Varmam

2

திவளைக் கால வர்மம்

Thivalaik Kaala Varmam

3

கைபுஜ மூன்றாவது வரி வர்மம்

Kaibuja Moondraavadhu Varivarmam

4

சுழி ஆடி வர்மம்

Kazhiaadi Varmam

5

அடப்பக்கால வர்மம்

Adappakkaala Varmam

6

முண்டெல்லு வர்மம்

Mundellu Varmam

7

பெரிய அஸ்தி சுருக்கி வர்மம்

Periya Asthi Surukki Varmam

8

சிறிய அஸ்தி சுருக்கி வர்மம்

Siriya Asthi Surukki Varmam

9

ஆனந்த வாசு கால வர்மம்

Aanandha Vaasukaala Varmam

10

கதிர் வர்மம்

Kadhir Varmam

11

கதிர் காம வர்மம்

Kadhirkaama Varmam

12

கூம்பு வர்மம்

Koombu Varmam

13

ஹனுமார் வர்மம்

Hanumaar Varmam

15 Varma Points in front side of the body

1

உதிரக்கால வர்மம்

Udhirakkaala Varmam

2

பல்லை வர்மம்

Pallai Varmam

3

மூதிரக்கால வர்மம்

Moothirakkaala Varmam

4

குத்து வர்மம்

Kutthu Varmam

5

நேர் வர்மம்

Ner Varmam

6

உறுமிக்கால வர்மம்

Urumikkaala Varmam

7

ஆமென்ற வர்மம்

Aaamendra Varmam

8

தண்டு வர்மம்

Thandu Varmam

9

லிங்க வர்மம்

Linga Varmam

10

ஆண்டகால வர்மம்

Andakaala Varmam

11

தாலிக வர்மம்

Thaaliga Varmam

12

கல்லடைக் கால வர்மம்

Kalladaikkaala Varmam

13

காக்கடை கால வர்மம்

Kaakkattaikkaala Varmam

14

புஜ வர்மம்

Buja Varmam

15

விதனு மான் வர்மம்

Vidhanumaan Varmam

10 Varma Points in back side of the body

1

மேல்சுருதி வர்மம்

Melsurudhi Varmam

2

கைக்குழி காந்தாரி வர்மம்

Kaikkuzhi Gaandhaari Varmam

3

மேல்கைப்பூட்டு வர்மம்

Melkaippoottu Varmam

4

கைச்சிப்பு எலும்பு வர்மம்

Kaicheeppu Elumbu Varmam

5

பூணூல்கால வர்மம்

Poonoolkaala Varmam

6

வெல்லுறுமி தல்லுறுமி வர்மம்

Vellurumi Thallurumi Varmam

7

கச்சை வர்மம்

Kachai Varmam

8

கூச்சபிரம வர்மம்

Koochabirama Varmam

9

சங்குதிரிகால வர்மம்

Sanguthirikaala Varmam

10

வலம்புரி-இடம்புரி வர்மம்

Valamburi-Idampuri Varmam

9 Varma Points in front side of Hand

1

வலம்புரி-இடம்புரி வர்மம்

Valamburi-Idampuri Varmam

2

தல்லை அடக்க வர்மம்

Thallai Adakka Varmam

3

துரிக்கை வர்மம்

Thudhikkai Varmam

4

தட்சணக்கால வர்மம்

Dhatchanakaala Varmam

5

சுளுக்கு வர்மம்

Sulukku Varmam

6

மூட்டு வர்மம்

Moottu Varmam

7

மொளியின் வர்மம்

Mouliyin Varmam

8

கைக்குசதிட வர்மம்

Kaikusathida Varmam

9

உள்ளங்கை வெள்ளை வர்மம்

Ullangai Vellai Varmam

8 Varma Points in back side of Hand

1

தொங்குசதை வர்மம்

Thongusadhai Varmam

2

மணிபந்த வர்மம்

Manibandha Varmam

3

சுண்டோதரி வர்மம்

Sundodhari Varmam

4

நடுக்கவளி வர்மம்

Nadukkavali Varmam

5

சுளுவிரல் கவளி வர்மம்

Suluviral Kavali Varmam

6

மேல்மணிக்கட்டு வர்மம்

Melmanikkattu Varmam

7

விஷமணி பந்த வர்மம்

Vishamani Bandha Varmam

8

கவளிகால வர்மம்

Kavalikaal Varmam

19 Varma Points in front side of Leg

1

மூத்திரக்கால வர்மம்

Moothirakkaal Varmam

2

பதக்களை வர்மம்

Padhakkalai Varmam

3

ஆமைக்கால வர்மம்

Aamaikkaala Varmam

4

பக்க வர்மம்

Pakka Varmam

5

குழச்சி வர்மம்

Kuzhachi Varmam

6

முடிச்சி வர்மம்

Mudichi Varmam

7

சிறுவிரல் கவளி வர்மம்

Siruviral Kavali Varmam

8

சிரட்டை வர்மம்

Sirattai Varmam

9

கால்மூட்டு வர்மம்

Kaalmoottu Varmam

10

கால்கண்ணு வர்மம்

Kaalkannu Varmam

11

நாய்த்தலை வர்மம்

Naaithalai Varmam

12

குதிரைமுக வர்மம்

Gudhiraimuga Varmam

13

கும்பேறி வர்மம்

Kumberi Varmam

14

கண்ணு வர்மம்

Kannu Varmam

15

கோணச்சன்னி வர்மம்

Konacchanni Varmam

16

அடைக்கால வர்மம்

Adakkakkaala Varmam

17

திட வர்மம்

Thida Varmam

18

கண்புகழ்கால வர்மம்

Kanpugazhkaala Varmam

19

பூமிக்கால வர்மம்

Boomikkaala Varmam

13 Varma Points in Back side of Leg

1

இடுப்பு வர்மம்

Iduppu Varmam

2

கிழிமேக வர்மம்

Kizhimega Varmam

3

இழிப்பிறை வர்மம்

Izhippirai Varmam

4

அணி வர்மம்

Ani Varmam

5

கோச்சு வர்மம்

Kocchu Varmam

6

முடக்கு வர்மம்

Mudakku Varmam

7

குளிர்ச்சை வர்மம்

Kulirchai Varmam

8

குசத்திட வர்மம்

Kusathida Varmam

9

உப்புகுத்தி வர்மம்

Uppukuthi Varmam

10

பாதச்சக்கர வர்மம்

Paadhacchakkara Varmam

11

கீழ்சுழி வர்மம்

Keezhsuzhi Varmam

12

பதக்கல் வர்மம்

Padhakkal Varmam

13

முண்டக வர்மம்

Mundaka Varmam

8 Varma Points in outer Back region

1

மேல்சுரிதிவர்மம்

Melsuridhivarmam

2

மேலாக காலவர்மம்

Melaaga Kaalavarmam

3

கீழாக காலவர்மம்

Keezhaaga Kaalavarmam

4

தட்டெல்லு வர்மம்

Thattellu Varmam

5

மேல அகண்ட வர்மம்

Mel Aganda Varmam

6

நாய் இருப்பு வர்மம்

Naai Iruppu Varmam

7

கீழ் ஆண்ட வர்மம்

Keezh Aganda Varmam

8

குதிகால வர்மம்

Kuthikaala Varmam

Upanyasagar and his horse man

Once an upanyasagar travelled along with his horseman to a village temple to do his upanyasam. Unfortunately that day no one came to his upanyasam. He was waiting for a long time to see if someone is coming to listen. He thought of leaving but his horseman came and sat in front of him. 

Upanyasagar: I thought of leaving because there is no one to listen. But you came and sat in front of me so I’m confused on what to do. We have to do our upanyasam even if a pillar in front of us is ready to listen. What do you think?

Horseman: Swamy I’m not as wise as you. We just ride horse cart and maintain horses. We are ordinary people. But I can tell you something based on my horse maintenance experience. If we go to a stable to keep Kollu (a type of horse food) for horses and if there just only one horse in a 30 horse capacity stable, we will not return back without keeping Kollu.

Upanyasagar told that he understood what the horseman said and he was very happy. He started his lecture on Vedas shasthraas and many other things. The horseman was silently listening to what he was telling. He continued the lecture for more than 1 hour and finally asked feedback from horseman.

Horseman: Swamy, I’m not a big scholar to comment on your speech. As I mentioned, will keep Kollu even if there is just one horse in the stable, but we will not keep all the Kollu that we took, to that only horse and kill it.

What is the purpose of Life?

This is a common question that arises in the mind of people who have started self-realization. This is also one of the significant questions that is necessary for people would like to dive deep into spirit realization. When we are born in this world, we are born as a small kid. We gradually grow up into a big man or woman. During the course of growth we gain lots of knowledge from various sources. We are exposed to both good and bad things in life. Both pleasure and pain in life. After going through all these things we end up in graveyard. If we think through all these things, there comes a necessity to understand what the actual purpose of life is. Scholars believe that purpose of life differs from one living being to another living being. This is a question that we have to ask ourselves every day. Every human being or every living being born in this world is going to die some day or the other. Before we die, we have to understand what the purpose of life is. We have to take necessary steps to expose the real purpose of this life.

What are we traveling towards? What is the destination of life? Say for example if a person is starting from Chennai and travelling towards Mumbai, his travel details are clear. He started from Chennai and his destination is Mumbai. But when it comes to human, we start our journey in this earth as a human but what is the destination? Is it going to be the graveyard? Is death going to be the only destination for every human being? It can also be said in other words. Some people disagree to the fact that they are not destined towards death. In that case are they destined towards next birth? Details about re-birth is clear in the scriptures of Sanathana Dharma even though most of the other religions don’t believe the concept of re-birth. The following verses from Thiruppugazh adds more fuel to this thought.

எருவாய் கருவாய் தனிலே யுருவா
யிதுவே பயிராய் …… விளைவாகி

இவர்போ யவரா யவர்போ யிவரா
யிதுவே தொடர்பாய் …… வெறிபோல

ஒருதா யிருதாய் பலகோ டியதா
யுடனே யவமா …… யழியாதே

ஒருகால் முருகா பரமா குமரா
உயிர்கா வெனவோ …… தருள்தாராய்

Eruvaai Karuvaai Thanile Yuruvaai
Idhuve Payiraai Vilaivaagi

Ivarpo yavaraa yavarpo ivaraa
Idhuve Thodarbaai Veripol

Orudhaa Yirudhaai palako Diyadhaa
Yudane Yavamaa Yazhiyaadhe

Orukaal Muruga Paramaa Kumaraa
Uyirkaa Venavo Tharulthaaraai

If we are not destined towards death, next birth, re-birth etc., then are we destined towards a state where there should be no birth at all? This state is called as Mukthi state. There was another Saint who sings about the difficulty of taking birth again and again. In the below verses the Saint requests the god for not to be born again in as a womb inside another mother.

மாதா வுடல் சலித்தால் வல்வினையேன் கால்சலித்தேன்
வேதாவும் கைசலித்து விட்டானே நாதா
இருப்பையூர் வாழ்சிவனே இன்னுமோ ரன்னை
கருப்பையூர் வாராமல் கா

Maadha Udal Salithaal, Vall Vinaiyaen Kaal Salithaen
Vedhavum Kaisalithu Vittaanae Naadha
Iruppaiyur Vaazh Sivanae Innumore Annai
Karuppaiyur Vaaramal Kaa

So it is necessary that everyone should think about the purpose of this life every day. Allocating time in life to think about this question is very important. We have so many temples and other religious structures built by so many great kings in India. One of the main purpose of such temples is to sit and think what is the purpose of life. Along with what we admire in the temple, we should also give a thought about ourselves to know why we have born in this world. What will be our destination. All the things that we collect as part of this life is not going to be with us after the life is gone. Even the knowledge that we are accumulating throughout our life is not going to there after death. When we take a fresh birth again, we have to accumulate again the same knowledge. So it is ideal to start thinking on what the purpose of life is with the knowledge that we have accumulated so far.

Purpose of Life according to Sanathana Dharma

In Sanathana Dharma, we have answers for almost every question. There are also details clearly available for people who question about purpose of life. For self-realization, understanding the purpose of life is very important. They should be seek towards understand why they have taken birth in this world. The ancients formulated Purusharthas for every living being to fulfil. There are Four Purusharthas defined in Sanathana Dharma as a principle to be followed by every individual in the journey of life. Every part of life and every journey in the life will fall under any of the categories of Chathur Vidha Purusharthas.

धर्म

Dharma

Righteousness, Duty

अर्थ

Artha

Wealth

काम

Kaama

Desire

मोक्ष

Moksha

Liberation

Apart from the above, there are also varieties of other answers for this question. Gaining experience throughout the life is the purpose of the life. We are not going to prepare for any life here. We don’t know what happened before birth, we don’t know what will happen after death. The period between birth and death is called as the Life. The real purpose of life in Sanathana Dharma is to serve others.

उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत ।
क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति ।। (Kathopanishad – l.3.14)

The motive of every human should be to gain as much as fully sustainable knowledge from every source.