Law of Gravity discovered by Bhaskaracharya II
World is not fully aware about the potential of India. Most of the discoveries made by Indian scholars are still unknown to the world. India has contributed a lot towards the field of Astronomy, Mathematics, Astrology, Weather forecast, Physics, Chemistry, Alchemy etc. Many inventions and discoveries were made in ancient India but the great minds of India was not given the credit. One such example is the Law of Gravity. When we talk about Gravitation and law of gravity, we will immediately get only Sir Isaac Newton and the apple that fell on his head. Newton’s contribution to Gravity and other discoveries are still great because he has given a detailed explanation on these concepts and that is used extensively in various field in our modern world. But Newton was not the first person to discover Gravity. The actual credit for the discovery of Law of Gravity should be given to Bhaskaracharya II. In his book Sidhanta Shiromani, Bhaskaracharya has explained clearly about Gravity. The gravitational force is also called as gurutvakarshan shakti by Bhaskaracharya.
मध्ये समन्तादण्डस्य भूगोलो व्योम्नि तिष्ठति ।
बिभ्राणः परमां शक्तिं ब्रह्मणो धारणात्मिकाम् ॥ — (सुर्य सिध्दान्त: भुगोलाध्याय – ३२)
madhye samantandasya bhugolo vyomni tisthati
bibhranah paramam saktim brahmano dharanatmikam
[Surya Sidhantha, Bhulogaadhayaya, 32nd Shloka]
In the above verses written by Aryabhata in his book Surya Sidhantha, he gives a clue about the force that holds the earth in the space. Bhaskaracharya, in his commentary to the book Surya Sidhantha, he explains about how gravitation works, in detail. The below verses are from the book Sidhantha Sironmani, a commentary to Surya Sidhantha. Bhaskaracharya wrote this book at the age of 36 in the year 1150 AD.
आकृष्टिशक्तिश्च महि तय यत्।
खष्ठं गुरु स्वभिमुखं स्वशक्त्या ॥
आकृष्यते तत्पततीव भाति।
समेसमन्तात् क्व पतत्वियं खे ॥ — (सिद्धान्त शिरोमणि गोलाध्याय-भुवनकोष-६)
akrishti sakthishcha mahi taya yat
kashtam guru svabhimukham svasaktya
akrishyathe tatpatativa bhati
same samantaat kva patatviyam khe
[Sidhanta Shiromani, Golodhyaaya-Bhuvanakosa, 6th Shloka]
After Bhaskaracharya II, there are also other scholars who have described about Gravity in their works. Newton’s contribution to concepts related to Gravitation is still amazing as he has given lots of additional information regarding this topic. There are also descriptions available about the availability of this gravitational force in scriptures that belong to 6000 BC. Descriptions are available on Prashnopanishad about Gravitational pull. The literary work Prashnopanishad belongs to 6000 BC. There are many commentaries available for Prashnopanishad in which the scholars have also explained the context clearly. The book describes about the force that pulls objects towards the earth and the force that keep us grounded to the earth. Without this force we will end up floating.