Tamil and Sanskrit are linked with each other
Tamil and Sanskrit are the oldest language and the most popular language in India. The languages that are spoken in India and even in other countries are the ones that were derived from these two parent languages. It is a very common argument among the people on which language came first and was the one derived from the other. Historically the languages Tamil and Sanskrit are blended together and are more dependent on each other. The perfect explanation for the similarity of these two languages will be like we can say that Tamil and Sanskrit are two eyes of humans. Both the eyes have equal significance and we never end up arguing which eye is greatest among the two. Similarly the languages Tamil and Sanskrit have their individual greatness and significance.
Historical evidences for Tamil and Sanskrit to be one of the oldest language
The historical evidences states that the languages and the people who spoke these languages are dated back to more than 10 thousand years. In the recent discovery, some artifacts identified in a temple in a village called Thirumaanikkuzhi near Cuddalore district was a great surprise for the archaeologists. The artifacts confirmed the existence of the temple for more than 10 thousand years. As the temple was available for more than 10 thousand years, the language Tamil that is spoken and written in the walls of the temple should also be older than 10 thousand years. Similarly a written copy of a Rig Veda book dated back to 10 thousand years also proves the existence of Sanskrit language for more than 10 thousand years. In Sanskrit, the language is popularly denoted as Vedha Bhasha which means that the Vedas were in Sanskrit language or the language of Vedas was Sanskrit. In Tamil, the Vedas are known as Marai. Various Tamil literature works explains the existence of the Nangu Marai which is 4 Vedas. There is also a belief among the Tamil people that there should definitely be a Tamil version of the Vedas as the ancient literature denotes and refers to the Marai. It is expected that the Marai should have been gone missing along with the other literatures when the actual Tamil Nadu (Kumari Kandam) sank under water. Tamil was considered as the Marai Mozhi.
There were scholars well versed in both Tamil and Sanskrit. The best example was Thirugnanasambandhar. He was born in a Vedic family and well versed in Vedas in a very young age. He performed various Yagas and Yagnyas as mentioned in the Vedas with the help of his father Sivapadha Hirudhayar. Thirugnanasambandhar, a strong devotee of Lord Shiva was very good in creating Bhasmas (Popularly known as Thiruneeru in Tamil). He used the Bhasmas to cure diseases of people. He lived like a great legend well versed in both Sanskrit and Tamil. He wrote many hymns praising the greatness of Lord Shiva in Tamil language. Apart from this example we can also say the existence of various Rishis (Sanskrit Saints) and Siddhars (Tamil Saints) who were well versed in alchemy. Their contribution to Ayurveda (Sanskrit Medicine) and Siddha medicine (Tamil Medicine) were enormous.
Grammatical uniqueness in Sanskrit and Tamil
There is also some greatness in the grammatical usage of both the languages. Sanskrit language has some uniqueness that is not present in the Tamil language and Tamil language has some uniqueness that is not present in the Sanskrit language. It becomes more interesting to know the way in which both the languages are beautifully originated.
Vinai Thogai (வினைத்தொகை):
The concept of Vinai Thogai is very famous in Tamil and it is not straight forward in Sanskrit language.
In Tamil language the gender difference can be shown in just one word explaining which gender performed that action.
Vandhaal(வந்தாள்), Vandhaan(வந்தான்), Vandhadhu(வந்தது)
But in Sanskrit for everything it is just Ghachathi (गच्छति) and you will have to add the gender word before Ghachathi to say if it is he or she. Like Tamil this cannot be explain in just one single word.
There is also one wonderful example given for the concept of Vinai Thogai through an incident from Mahabharata. During the Mahabharata war on the date of Karna’s death Krishna approaches Karna like an old man asking for a favor to give all the virtuous deeds (Punniyam) done by him to Krishna so that he can die peacefully. The virtuous deeds that he did throughout the life did not let him die. It was helping Karna to live. In this context in Vyasa’s Mahabharata written in Sanskrit it will be mentioned as if Krishna is asking for the virtuous deeds done till now by Karna. Most of the scholors argue saying the fact that it doesn’t make sense because if Karna is going to give all the Virtuous deeds done by him in past to Krishna it will even add more virtuous deeds to him for the present and future. So he will still hold so much of virtuous deeds.
The answer for this is available in the Villi Bharatham written by Villiputhoor Alwar in the above verses. In the Villi Bharatham it is said that Krishna will approach Karna to ask for all his virtuous deeds by just saying one word i.e. Sei Punniyam. This means that Krishna just meant asking him the virtuous deeds that he did in past, the one that he is doing in present and the one that he will be doing in future in just one word Sei Punniyam which covers all the three tenses. So this can be said as one good example for the significant usage of Vinai Thogai in Tamil language.